Quakers rejected the idea of worldly rank, believing instead in a new and radical form of social equality. Unlike New England, the Middle Colonies had richer, less rocky soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. The colony’s fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey boasted a population of 120,000 by 1775. A: Most people in the middle colonies were Puritan. The Dutch, through their trade of manufactured goods with the Iroquois and Algonquians, presumed they had exclusive rights to farming, hunting, and fishing in the region. Penn had a hard time governing Delaware because the economy and geology were largely the same as that of the Chesapeake, rather than that of his Pennsylvania territory. What was the land like in the New England colony during the 1600-1700? The Lenape and Susquehanna occupied the land prior to colonization. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe and a high degree of religious tolerance. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the colonies. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. True or false. The mid-A… New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed only sporadically. Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow: History Matters! The Duke of York never visited his colony, named New York in his honor, and exercised little direct control over it. They later on renamed the colony the Dutch had settled in New York. Joan Vinckeboons (Johannes Vingboon), “Manatvs gelegen op de Noot Riuier”, 1639: In this map (c. 1639), Manhattan is situated on the North River. William named the capital of his colony as Philadelphia. By 1685 … The Dutch colony of New Netherland was taken by the British in the 17th century and later became the colonies of New York and New Jersey. In 1704, Dutch land given to Penn by the Duke of York was separated and once again became part of the Delaware Colony. Except for the Dutch in New York, the English population had managed to maintain or impose their institutions on all other competing cultures. During the Anglo-Dutch wars of the 1650s and 1660s, the two powers attempted to gain commercial advantages in the Atlantic World. The Middle Colonies. A very important man is William Penn. Indentured servitude was especially common in the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though fewer worked in agriculture. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. After Charles II came to the throne, the English became very interested in the Dutch holdings. The original report on the 1790 census listed the country’s population as 3,929,326, but math errors showed 114 more people in Vermont than the correct count and two fewer people in Delaware than the correct count. From 1682 until 1776, it was part of the Penn proprietorship and was known as the Lower Counties. Seeking to enter the fur trade, the Dutch cultivated close relations with the Five Nations of the Iroquois. He attempted to merge the governments of Pennsylvania and Delaware. Charles II of England set his sights on the Dutch colony of New Netherland. The Scots-Irish also began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after 1717. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England's 120,000 and the Southern Colonies' 77,000. William Penn founded the Pennsylvania Colony in 1681 and brought over Quaker dissidents from England, Wales, the Netherlands, and France. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. The Birth of Pennsylvania 1680 cph.3g07157. Slaves could testify in court, sign legal documents, and bring civil actions against whites. Constant poverty in Scotland caused a large migration in the middle of the 18th century. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. The middle colonies had a more diverse population -apex!! The original inhabitants of the area included the Hackensack, Tappan, and Acquackanonk tribes in the northeast, and the Raritan and Navesink tribes in the center of the state. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. New Netherland was the territory on the eastern coast of North America established by Henry Hudson in 1609. This could not be said of the middle colonies. If you would like to comment, contact us or like us on Facebook and tell us what you think. In 1681, William Penn founded the Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, in British America by royal charter. Middle Colonies and the Western Frontier Unlike New England, the mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration. The population of Delaware was not extremely different, the colonies consisted of English, Dutch, and Swedish settlers.The majority of the colony spoke English. Upon visiting the colony in 1669 and 1701, Penn eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be added to the constitution. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scottish Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. The Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to all monotheists, and the government was initially open to all Christians. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/indentured_servant, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_colonies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20England%20Confederation, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Middle_Colonies_USA.svg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_history_of_the_United_States%23New_Netherland, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/US_History/English_Colonies%23New_Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second%20Anglo-Dutch%20War, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty%20of%20Westminster, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manatvs_gelegen_op_de_Noot_Riuier.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaware_Colony, http://cnx.org/contents/p7ovuIkl@3.30:ZC7sZcO-@3/Charles-II-and-the-Restoration, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Pennsylvania, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William%20Penn, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower%20Counties, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Birth_of_Pennsylvania_1680_cph.3g07157.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Colonies%23Demographics, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_Dutch, http://books.google.com/books?id=GFNJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA170&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U24DCz_974ZR0MnJwEWZaA2zaSTKg&ci=120,404,747,248&edge=0. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. The Dutch Reformed were strong in upstate New York and New Jersey, and Congregationalists were important in Long Island. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1664–1667), English forces gained control of the Dutch fur trading colony of New Netherland, and in 1664, Charles II gave this colony (including present-day New Jersey) to his brother James, Duke of York (later James II). New Jersey and Delaware had a majority British population as well, with 7–11% German-descended colonists, about a 6% African population, and a small contingent of Swedish descendants. In Pennsylvania, sawmills and gristmills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. Delaware continued to be a melting pot of sorts and was home to Swedes, Finns, Dutch, and French, in addition to the English, who constituted the dominant culture. The Charter of Privileges mandated fair dealings with American Indians. 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